Diegetic sound is any sound presented as originated from source within the film's world. Digetic sound can be either on screen or off screen depending on whatever its source is within the frame or outside the frame. Another term for diegetic sound is actual sound. Diegesis is a Greek word for "recounted story" Diegetic and non-diegetic sounds - FilmSound.org
(From Oxford University Press) A term for all music that is broadcast on television. It has functioned in several different ways, reflecting the array of genres and modes of broadcasting. In American television, music has been heard as entertainment through the performances of songs and instrumental works by classical, jazz, country, pop, rock, and other performers, in other words, music presented as music. It has also been heard as “production music,” to underscore dramatic programs, enhance mood and narrative structure and meaning, similar to music’s function in films, and as a way to mark transitions within a television program and between programs. Music has functioned in these ways in both programs and in commercials. During the early years of television, these modes of television music were discrete, but from the 1980s the distinctions in the form that music takes has been blurred.
The functions of television music listed above may be generalized in three categories, using terminology for narrative agency. First, it can be “extradiegetic”—used to navigate and transition through the many programs and advertisements of a broadcasting schedule, often called the “flow” of television: from program to station break and vice-versa, and between station breaks, public service announcements, program promotions, and commercials. Second, television music can be “intradiegetic,” where it is used as background or mood music within narrative programs, such as situation comedies, dramas, and documentaries. Intradiegetic music is usually “acousmatic,” meaning the source of the music is not seen on the screen. Finally, television music can be “diegetic,” that is, music whose source appears on screen and is heard as part of the action or the mise-en-scène of a program. Diegetic music is often performed by musicians shown on the screen in genres such as musical variety shows, late-night talk shows, and music videos, but may also be featured in a narrative program.
A historical periodization of music practice in television is tied to developments in broadcasting practices and technology of the medium itself. However, music practice periods in TV differ somewhat from many media theorists’ periodization of television in general. As in any periodization, there are significant overlaps where traits of a certain period can be found earlier and continue on into the next period. With these caveats, the history of television music in television can be viewed as progressing through four overlapping stages: a “pre-broadcasting” period (c1925–48), an experimental era during which television and television programs served as exhibitions and curiosities for demonstrations private and public; a “radiophonic” period (c1948–55), in which television music borrowed heavily from vaudeville, live theater, and radio (its immediate electronic media predecessor), while also experimenting with new modes of presentation; a cinematic period (c1955–80) marked by improved production and broadcasting practices of diegetic and extradiegetic music, but also by the involvement and influence of film studios in television production, when music followed the conventions of Hollywood film scoring; and a “televideo” period (from 1981) characterized by a proliferation of music styles and a breakdown of intertextual boundaries that has been marked by the importing of popular music into TV episodes, but also the export of music from TV episodes to CDs, Internet websites, and podcasts.
Music has been an integral part of American television from its earliest days and has served as a reflection of the musical tastes of the American public through the years. This reflection can be found in the historic shift from light classical and popular standard musical styles used between the 1940s and 1970s to the rock and pop music that was adopted in the 1980s. Moreover, the dual function of television music as artistic text and commodity text has reflected perceptions of television as a whole and is perhaps a uniquely American way of utilizing artistic texts such as music for commercial ends. Much of what has been seen and heard on television has been of high artistic quality, but it has also had to be popular with a significant portion of the viewing audience in order to attract and maintain sponsorship from private corporations.
Early experimental broadcasts in the 1920s, such as those of the television pioneer Charles Jenkins, often featured musicians as subjects. The era of broadcast television can be said to have begun on 21 July 1931 when the CBS network went on the air with the “Television Inaugural Broadcast,” airing on W2XAB, an experimental station in New York. The broadcast featured Kate Smith and other singers, as well as George Gershwin, who was interviewed and who played some of his piano pieces. NBC began experimental broadcasts from New York’s Empire State Building in 1932, but did not begin public broadcasting until 1939, when its “First Night” program featured the musician Fred Waring and his Pennsylvanians.
World War II delayed the widespread development of television, but after the war television stations began public broadcasting on a national scale. The first post-war musical variety show was “Hour Glass,” which debuted on 9 May 1946 and featured Dennis Day and Peggy Lee as regulars on the show. The show retained a vaudeville concept from radio and theater, featuring comedy sketches, ballroom dancing, and musical numbers accompanied by a live orchestra. Uncertain of the role of music on television, James Petrillo, the president of the AFM, sought to ban live music on TV until a remuneration schedule could be worked out. The ban was lifted on 20 March 1948 when the major networks (NBC, CBS, ABC, and DuMont) worked out an agreement with the union, and musical variety shows flourished. While continuing the “vaudeo” (vaudeville on video) format of “Hour Glass,” “Texaco Star Theater” (starring Milton Berle) set a musical standard by hiring an orchestra and the singer Pearl Bailey to feature as regulars on the show.
From 1948 music developed in the three modes of broadcasting. The remainder of this article will cover each in turn, along with historical coverage of music in animated cartoons and television advertising.
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